נזקי שכר המינימום

זה קורה במשמרת של "הממשלה הכי ימנית אי פעם"
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זה קורה במשמרת של "הממשלה הכי ימנית אי פעם": הקומוניסטים במפלגה חד"ש חוגגים את העלאת שכר המינימום ל-5,000 ש"ח בחודש. ראש הממשלה בנימין נתניהו כינה את ה"ניצחון" הזה – שהושג לאחר קמפיין אגרסיבי שהובילו הסיעות הסוציאליסטיות בכנסת - "צעד חברתי חשוב שמובילה הממשלה". אוי לבושה: ממשלת הימין מוצאת עצמה בסירה אחת עם פוליטיקאים האוחזים באידאולוגיה המסוכנת והרצחנית ביותר שידעה האנושות במאה ה-20.

ה"ניצחון" הזה – העלאת שכר המינימום - הוא כולו הפסד; לא רק לכלכלת ישראל בכללותה אלא בעיקר לעובדים החלשים ביותר.

הבעיה המרכזית עם שכר המינימום הוא שהוא מפחית את הכדאיות של העסקת עובדים בענפים הדורשים מיומנויות נמוכות. כפי שציין הכלכלן האגדי תומאס סואל: "למרבה הצער, שכר המינימום הריאלי הוא תמיד אפס, למרות החוקים שקובעים אחרת, וזהו אכן השכר שעובדים רבים מקבלים בעקבות החקיקה או העלאת שכר המינימום על ידי הממשלה; זאת מאחר ועובדים אלה מאבדים את מקום עבודתם או פשוט לא מצליחים למצוא עבודות כשהם נכנסים לשוק העבודה. הקביעה כי זהו בלתי חוקי לשלם שכר הנמוך מסכום כלשהו לא הופכת את הפרודוקטיביות של העובד לכדאית עבור המעסיק – ואם היא אכן לא כדאית, לא סביר כי אותו עובד בכלל יועסק".

במקרים בהם שכר המינימום נוסק לגבהים בלתי נסבלים עבור המעסיקים, רבים מהם פשוט בוחרים להעביר את מפעליהם למדינות אחרות, מה שמחריף את מצוקת האבטלה. מעסיקים אחרים מעדיפים להעסיק עובדים בצורה לא חוקית, מה שיוצר כלכלה שחורה ולא מדווחת.

שכר מינימום גבוה יוצר את התפיסה המרקסיסטית השגויה ששכר נמוך נגרם באשמת מעסיקים נצלנים. למעשה, שכר נמוך עבור מקצועות שדורשים מיומנויות נמוכות הוא החלטה כלכלית רציונלית ויעילה, ולא מזימה פוליטית אפלה לדיכוי מעמדות קשיי יום. על מנת להשתכר שכר גבוה יותר יש לרכוש השכלה והכשרה מתאימות, ועל כן קביעת שכר גבוה באופן מלאכותי וכפוי על ידי המדינה לא יוצרת את התמריץ הנכון עבור אותם עובדים לשיפור חייהם באופן מהותי ובר-קיימא.

הגיע הזמן לממשלה ימנית אמיתית - לא רק בביטחון אלא גם בכלכלה; דהיינו כזו שפועלת לצמצום המעורבות הממשלתית בכלכלה ולא להרחבתה.

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